The oscillators are designed to use the lowest possible CPU while providing every possible mode. For FM and SYNC oscillators, internal logic automatically switches the oscillator module for the lowest possible CPU usage. The lowest CPU utilization is for "F" mode oscillators without FM or SYNC enabled.

Intermediate pan positions provide linear downscaling of osc1 modulations (to the right) or osc2 modulations (to the left). For example, if the modulation amount is 12 semitones, then a setting at 3 o'clock sends 6 semitones to osc1, and all 12 semitones to osc2.

AM

The AMSRC switch enables AM modulation by an audio source, also selecting the source.

  • If AMSRC is on, the AM knob controls the amount of AM modulation. Internal switching reduces CPU usage if AM is turned off
  • If AMSRC is off, the AM knob attenuates the amount of amplitude modulation by any modulation sources that have been set up in the modulation matrix.

If you modulate AM with an oscillator, the result is ring modulation. If you modulate AM with LFOs, the result is tremolo. You can also use envelopes to modulate oscillator amplitude by different amounts, so that different oscillator levels are passed into other units. Note that matrix modulation of AM is fully polyphonic, so for example different levels of tremolo can be generated for each voice.

FM

The FMSRC switch enables FM modulation by an audio source, also selecting the source. If FMSRC is on, the FM knob controls the amount of FM modulation. Internal switching reduces CPU usage if FM is turned off. FM depth is set in semitones around the oscillator's current output pitch.

PH/WSRC

The PH/WSRC switch enables audio-rate modulation of phase (for Sync oscillators) or width (for audio oscillators). If enabled, unity-gain audio modulation adds +/-1 to the values of the phase or width knobs, and values exceeding the +/-1 range of these parameters are mirrored.

Typically the audio source would be a one-input submixer so that the audio source can be attenuated to the desired value.

SYNC, PH/WS

If the FM switch is on, the SYNC switch additionally enables sync for FM sources.

  • HARD and GATE sync set the oscillators to the phase set by the PH/WS upon sync.
  • SOFT sync reverses the waveform upon sync.

Hard sync is not available for the Waveset oscillator. For wavesets, the Ph/WS knob instead selects the waveset. Wavesets can be changed during a note (most implementations can only change wavesets at the beginning of a note). This means, when using a waveset oscillator, you can twist the WS knob to change oscillator types dynamically, without switch interruptions.

CONTOUR (WIDE)

WIDE sets the width ratio for width-modulated oscillators. It also sets the ramp slope for the biramp oscillator, resonance for the Noise Q oscillator, and startpoint for the waveset oscillators. For this reason WIDE is also called CONTOUR.

TRACK

TRACK sets the amount of pitch tracking. For linear pitch tracking, set to midpoint value 1. At 0, there is no pitch tracking. At 2, pitch tracking is double the source pitch.

Typically TRACK is set to 1. If you just want to modulate oscillator pitch by an LFO and/or envelope, then set to TRACK to 0, set SHIFT to the pitch offset; then either use FM or Matrix1 to apply the LFO/envelope modulations to the pitch.

FINE, SHIFT

FINE applies a detuning offset in cents to the oscillators. Fine tuning is applied after microtuning.

SHIFT transposes the oscillator pitch in semitones.

GLIDE

Enables glide from the global pitch module. See the description of the global pitch module for more information.

Submixers

The six submixers each have two inputs with multiple modes for the mix and modulation kind.

MODE

Switch to set submixer mode:

M

mixes input 1 (top) and input 2 (bottom). Matrix modulations are smoothed to 10Hz to reduce CPU usage.

M+

same as SLO, but modulations are at full event rate.

AM

output is input 1 * input 2, with mix controlling output level. The result is like ring modulation with oscillator and similar sources, or it can be used to modulate at audio rate with input 1 as LFO or envelope. Level control and matrix modulations use less CPU but are smoothed to 10Hz.

A!

Like am1, but matrix modulations are at full event rate (increasing CPU usage).

RNG

output is just input 2 with low mix, or input 1 multiplied by input 2 with high mix. Matrix modulations are at full event rate. another.

Filters

The three state-variable filter units all provide 19 different kinds of filtering mode. In some modes, the filter characteristics or wet/dry mix can be set and modulated.

Filter Tips

  • Use parallel filters panned to different positions for chorus effects. Or pan the original signal to one side and the filtered to the other.
  • Use a comb filter with PTRK=1 to add sonic richness.
  • Use a comb filter with PTRK=0, to create a chorus effect.
  • Use a comb filter with high resonance to simulate a string or tube.
  • Use LH2 or LH4 with initial narrow separation, and increase the separation with envelope over time to create a "fly-in" effect.

INPUT, KIND

The INPUT switch sets the audio input, and the KIND switch sets the type of filter. Setting input to OFF disables the filter entirely (and turns off the XY panel), saving CPU. The following filter types are available:

  • L2/4: Low-pass filters.
  • LD1/2/3/4: Ladder filters.
  • B2/4: Band-pass filters.
  • H2/4: High-pass filters.
  • LH2/4: Low-pass and high-pass filters in parallel.
  • Pro: Pro52 filter.
  • +/-Comb: Comb filters. The filter P controls set the comb delay, and the filter Q controls set the amount of feedback.
  • LP Fb: A 2-pole low-pass filter with feedback, followed by a 2-pole low-pass filter.

Hishelf/Lshelf: Equalizers. The P controls set the corner frequency and the Q controls set the boost/cut factor (0.5 no boost/cut; higher values are boost, lower values are cut).

Bypass: The source audio is directly passed to the output.

FM

The FmSrc switch sets the FM source. Internal logic reduces CPU if this switch is set to OFF. The FM knob controls the amount of FM modulation. FM modulation depth is set in semitones around current filter pitch.

PITCH TRACKING

PSRC selects the pitch source for frequency tracking.

  • P takes pitch from global pitch, pre glide but post transposition and remapping. The CENTER control in the global pitch panel also allows changing of filter response over pitch.
  • O1/32/3/4/5/6: take pitch from oscillators, post glide, and after any pitch modulation and transposition for the oscillators themselves.
  • E1/2/3: take pitch from the envelopes directly, before any modifications to global pitch.

You can also set the fitlers to track each oterh, actualy, fitler 2 can track fitler 1, and filter 3 cant rack filter 1 or 2. This lets you set up one set of modulations and pass the same modulations to other filters.

PCNTR

sets the center frequency.

  • For linear tracking, set PCNTR to middle C (C3=60).
  • To skew pitch tracking so that lower frequencies cause greater pitch change, lower PCNTR.
  • To skew pitch tracking so that higher frequencies cause greater pitch change, increase PCNTR.

Specifically, the PCNTR control sets the middle point (0.5) for pitch tracking. Lower pitches than PCNTR linearly slope down so that MIDI 10 has PTRK value of 0. higher pitches than PCNTR linearly slope up so that MIDI 110 has PTRK value of 1.

If global pitch is the source, then Pcntr further modifies the frequency response after the CENTER control in the global pitch module. This permits multisegment tracking response.

PTRCK and QTRK set the amount of pitch tracking for filter frequency and resonance, respectively. If set to 0, there is no pitch tracking.

For more complex pitch response curves, set PTRCK and QTRK to 0; then route a pitch source to frequency pitch or resonance via the modulation matrix.

MODE

On filters 1 and 2, the MODE switch selects the filter gain and saturation mode:

  • DIRECT: gain is adjusted by filter's pitch and resonance at event rate
  • SAT: filter output also passes through saturator
  • S+L: filter output passes through saturator, then through unity-gain limiter.
  • S+A: filter output passes through saturator, then through AGC.
  • LMT: filter output passes through unity-gain limiter.
  • AGC: filter output level is fixed by automatic gain circuit to be unity gain.

MIX

  • If SAT is off, this sets mix of dry signal (fully left) and filtered signal (fully right).
  • If SAT is on, all of the input signal passes through the filter, and MIX instead sets the mix of filtered signal (fully left) and saturated filter (fully right).

In addition, the MIX knob provides the following special control modes:

  • For LH and feedback filters, MIX sets the separation between the filter stages.
  • For peak EQ, MIX sets the bandwidth.

XY Control

The XY control displays the current frequency and resonance for each voice, after shaping and modulation. The XY control crosshair sets the base frequency and resonance for the filter.

HiQ

When on, resonance has a more logarithmic characteristic, providing higher degree of control at higher resonances. When off, resonance is linear.

BUILT-IN MODULATIONS

On filter 1 and 2, the A and B listboxes select two modulation sources for the filter. See the section on matrix modulations for a description of the modulation sources.

The A>P and A>Q knobs set the amount that modulation source A is applied to frequency and resonance, respectively. The B>P and B>Q knobs perform the same function for modulation source B.

The pitch and modulation amounts for source A and source B are normally positive. To change their polarity, press the - button next to them.

DISTORTION

The distortion modules are single-in, single-out polyphonic audio modules that can be placed between any other two audio modules.

INPUT

The input switch selects the audio source for distortion.

MODE

The mode switch selects the type of distortion:

  • SMIRROR - 2-way mirror. LVL sets one mirror point, SYM the other.
  • MIRROR - 1-way mirror. LVL sets the mirror point.
  • SCLIP - asymmetric high/low clip. LVL sets one clip level, SYM the other.
  • CLIP - symmetric high/low clip. LVL sets the clip level.
  • SSAT - asymmetric saturation. LVL sets the amount of saturation, SYM the asymmetry.
  • SAT - saturation. LVL sets the amount of saturation.
  • SQNT - asymmetric quantization. LVL sets the quantization level, SYM sets the ERR amount.
  • QNT - quantization. LVL sets the quantization level.
  • SAW - saw wrapper. LVL sets wrapping range, SYM the step asymmetry.
  • TRI - triangle wrapper, SYM the step asymmetry.
  • SINE - sine wrapper, SYM the step asymmetry.
  • BYPASS - source audio passes directly to output, useful for monitoring

LVL

Sets the level or mix of the distorted signal, as described above.

SYM

Sets the asymmetry for asymmetric distortion modes, as described above.

LOCUT

The LOCUT switch enables a high-pass filter to reduce sub-audio-frequency rumble.