To set up an event route, select a source (from the “from” list), a destination (from the “to” list), and set the amount of modulation. To make it more readable the amount of modulation is shows as a percentage (0% to 100%).

The matrix panels also have a “+” button letting you invert the modulation, and a “+/-“ button to change its range. By default modulations are in the range 0 to 1. Turning off the “+” button causes the modulation to be in range 0 to –1. Turning on the “+/-“ button causes the modulation to be in range –1 to +1.

There are two event matrix panels. The main “audio matrix” panel provides 60 different modulations of oscillators, filters, shapers, submixers, and output mixer. The “source modulation” panel lets you modulate 60 LFO, envelope, and sequencer parameters.

If either the source or destination is off, or the amount is zero, then the matrix disconnects the route to save CPU.

Event Sources

There are 30 different event sources for both audio and source modulation. All event sources range between 0 and 1 (with pitch values scaled so that middle C is 0.5).

Event Sources:

Polyphonic

Lfo

The polyphonic LFO values.

Env

The envelope amplitudes.

Env

The envelopes for Lfo1, Lfo2, and Lfo3, respectively.

Velocity

The velocity of each active note.

Pitchtrack
Env Pitch
Osc Pitch

The pitch of each active note from the respective source (see note below), in the range 0 to 1 with Middle C as 0.5.

Voicespread

Equally spaced values between 0 and 1 depending on the voice number.

Shaper

The event output of the waveshaper unit.

S&H1,S&H2

Values from the sample and hold modules.

Monophonic

Modwheel

From MIDI mod wheel (controller 0)

SeqPitch

Values between 0 and 1 when modulating non-pitch destinations. When modulating oscillator or sequencer pitch, each single LVL scales the seq pitch by one semitone (if set to 1, each row up in the sequencer raises pitch by 1 semitone; if set to 12, each row changes pitch by one octave; and so on).

MIDIPitch

The pitch of the last received note from MIDI, in the range 0 to 1 with Middle C as 0.5.

PitchBend

From MIDI (center value of 0.5). Use the +/- button to get bipolar range).

Sustain

On/off value from MIDI sustain pedal (cc64)

Hold

On/off value from MIDI hold pedal (cc66)

Aftertouch

Channel aftertouch from MIDI keyboard.

Linear

The “amount” knob in the matrix directly sets the output value.

Pitch Sources

You may wonder about all the different types of pitch tracking data. Here is an explanation:

  • The envelope pitch is the raw pitch generated by the envelopes 1-3 when they are creating notes (if the envelope is following another envelope, it doesn’t create notes).
  • Pitch track is taken from global pitch, after scaling, mircotuning, transposition, glide, and modulation.
  • The oscillator pitch is the pitch of the oscillators after their own transposition, scaling, and modulation.

It’s useful to have all these kinds of pitch because they provide a wide variety of different sound possibilities. For example, an oscillator pitch can warble, but the pitch for a filter can be taken from the global pitch,so the filter does not track the warbling. Another possibility is that filter pitch tracking is taken directly from an envelope, and the global pitch transposed by a modwheel without affecting the filter cutoff frequency.

Moreover, in the Hegel instrument, two or three envelopes can send different notes to one oscillator, which could then feed into, say,the same distortion unit. The pitch from one envelope can modulate distortion amount, and then the notes from other envelopes do not affect the distortion characteristics.

Another possibility is to mix a couple of oscillators intoone filter. The filter pitch tracking can follow either of the oscillators.

The oscillators still generate pitch track values evenif their audio is not turned on. So pitch modulations can be sent to an oscillator and the resulting pitch track values used to modulate something else, even if the oscillator itself is not being used.

The envelopes also generate pitch values when the audio is turned off, as long as they are not set to follow the gate signals of another envelope. For example, one envelope can be triggered by a sequencer to generate stepped pitch values, which are used to modulate a filter being played by another envelope which has been set to audio mode.

Matrix 1

The first switchless modulation matrix provides modulation of the synthesizer audio parameters –oscillators, filters, mixers, and so on.Unless otherwise noted, the sources are polyphonic (monophonic sources take their values from voice 1).

Matrix 1 Destinations

Global Pitch

MIDI Pitch Value

Semitone

>+/- 100 semitones in semitone steps.

Fine Tune

+/- 1 semitone in cent steps.

Scale Map

Monophonic. Each 1% step moves to next scale map; higher values wrap back through the scale map table.

Scale Key

Monophonic. Each 1% step moves to next key; higher values wrap back through the key list.

Microtune

Monophonic. Each 1% step moves to next microtune table; higher values wrap back through the tables.

Glide

Attenuates glide time as percentage of set glide duration. For example a +50% modulation of ¼ glide time reduces glide to 1/8.

Oscillators

Xpose

+/- 100 semitones in semitone steps.

Tune

+/- 1 semitone in cent steps.

AM/FM

Sets amount of modulator as percentage of value that has been set by the oscillator panel’s AM/FM level control. If AM is switched off and the AM level is above zero, then source modulations directly attenuate oscillator gain. Likewise FM can be switched off, and the FM level in the oscillator panel set above zero, in which case the modulation affects oscillator pitch exponentially.

Ph/Waveset

For Sync oscillators, modulates the phase; for waveset oscillators, changes the waveset. Modulations are added to those set in the panel, and values at range boundaries are clipped.

Contour

For width-modulated (W) oscillators, modulates the width ratio over a total range of 5% to 95%. For Waveset oscillators, modulates the wave start position, with each percentage step changing start position by 1 oscillation. For NoiseQ, sets the amount of noise resonance over total range of +/-0.98Q. Modulations are added to those set in the panel, and values at range boundaries are clipped.

Glide

Attenuates glide time as percentage of set glide duration. For example a +50% modulation of ¼ glide time reduces glide to 1/8.

Submixers

Submix1~ Submix6

Modulates mix or AM amount for each submixer over a total range of +/-1. Modulations are added to those set in the panel, and values at range boundaries are clipped.

Filters

Freq

Modulates cutoff frequency in semitone steps. Modulations are added to those set in the panel, and values at range boundaries are clipped.

Resonance

Modulates resonance over a total range of +/-0.98Q. Modulations are added to those set in the panel, and values at range boundaries are clipped.

FM

Sets amount of modulator as percentage of value that has been set by the filter panel’s FM level control. If FM is switched off and the FM level is above zero, then modulations change filter cutoff frequency exponentially.

Mix

Modulates mix/saturation level depending on filter settings over a total gain range of  +/-1. Modulations are added to those set in the panel, and values at range boundaries are clipped.

EQ

Freq

Modulates center frequency of parametric EQ in semitone steps. Modulations are added to those set in the panel, and values at range boundaries are clipped.

Band

Modulates boost/cut over a total range of +/20dB. Modulations are added to those set in the panel.

Resonance

Modulates resonance over a total range of +/-0.98Q. Modulations are added to those set in the panel, and values at range boundaries are clipped.

Distortion and Shapers

Distort Lvl/Sym

Modulates distortion level over total range of +/-1. Modulations are added to those set in the panel, and values at range boundaries are clipped.

Shaper Drive

Modulates drive level over total range of +/-1. Modulations are added to those set in the panel, and values at range boundaries are clipped.

Shaper Scene

Morphs shaper output between preset, user1, and user2 curves. Modulations are added to those set in the panel, and values at range boundaries are clipped.

Shaper Mod

Adds to the event shaper scan rate.


Output Mixer

Env Lvl

Adds to level set in output mixer.

Env Pan

Adds to pan set in output mixer. Values exceeding range are wrapped.

Env Echo

Adds to echo send level as set in output mixer.

Env Epan

Pans channel between left and right echo channels.

Env Choir

Adds to chorus send level as set in output mixer.

Del/Chor Mod

Monophonic. Routes modulations to target as set in the effects “Mod Dest” List boxes.

Del/Chor Lvl

Monophonic. Adds to effect return level as set in output mixer.

Matrix 2

The second matrix is similar but provides modulation of the modulation sources themselves—LFOs, envelopes, and sequencers. Hegel stops feedback (when sources modulate themselves in some way) from crashing Reaktor by putting a tiny microdelay (one control-rate sample period, 2.5msec by default)in the loopback path. So that sequencers can then sum all modulations that have been sent to them before issuing the next step, the sequencers use ana dditional microdelay for a total of 5msec latency. You can reduce the latencyby setting higher control rates in the application menu.

Envelope Modulations

Except for sustain, envelope modulation values are latched at gate-on time. Sustain modulations are continuous, so for example an LFO can modulate the sustain level of a playing note.

Why doesn’t the sequencer have dedicated tables for controlling note velocity? Well they aren’t necessary, because:

  • The matrix lets one sequencer send pitch values to an envelope, and another sequencer can adjust its velocity or sustain level.
  • Alternatively, the other sequencer can modulate the envelope’s channel level, in the output mixer. In this case, if you also use the envelope as a modulation source in the matrix, then the envelope level is unaffected for modulations, but the audio output can have polyphonic level changes (and also be modulated by other things, for instance an LFO can simultaneously apply tremolo effects). Note that PREDELAY and REPEAT modes can then be used to cause flam and staccato effects.
  • LFOs and note pitch can also modulate envelope amplitude. Interesting effects are possible by syncing an LFO to when a sequencer starts (the trigger mode called CYCLE). The LFO waveform and phase can be adjusted so that the envelope velocity varies in some interesting pattern.

Sequencer Pitch Modulations

The instrument contains special logic to adjust the sequencer modulation range, depending whether itis modulating another sequencer’s pitch, or modulating something else:

  • For modulation of one sequencer’s pitch by another in semitones, set the matrix LVL to 1 (with +- button off). Then, if modulating sequencer 1 by sequencer 2’s pitch for example, then values at the bottom of sequencer 2’s table have no effect; values one semitone up increase sequencer 1’s output by one semitone; two rows up increase sequencer 1 by two semitones. If you set LVL to 12, then each row changes pitch by octaves; setting LVL to 5 causes each row to change pitch by fifths; and so on. Sequencers can modulate each other’s pitch in series or in parallel. (Note: a sequencer can modulate another’s pitch and also drive an audio envelope at the same time).
  • Similarly, you can modulate sequencer pitch by an LFO. If the LFO is set to full amplitude (with the LFO’s XY slider) then setting LVL to 12 causes the LFO to modulate the sequencer pitch over a one-octave range; setting LVL to 1 provides a one-semitone range; and so on.
  • Instead of modulating a sequencer’s pitch directly, you can send the modulation to the global pitch or oscillator units. For example, say you want a sequencer to modulate global pitch. There are a total of 25 levels in the sequencer tables, so if you set LVL to 4, then each row in the sequencer changes the global pitch by 1 semitone. If you set level 48, then each row in the sequencer changes pitch by an octave. Note, if keyscale remapping or microtuning is enabled, then fractional semitones can cause different results depending on the note.

    What’s the difference between modulation sequencer pitch and modulating global or oscillator pitch? The sequencers only output a new value on their next step, so changes in between each sequencer step don’t have any effect; whereas if you send the modulation to global pitch directly, then the pitch changes immediately.
  • When a sequencer is modulating anything besides another sequencer’s pitch, pitch modulations sent to that sequencer are ignored. Instead the sequencer’s modulation output is always scaled so that its output is 0 at the table’s bottom and +1 at the table’s top. This is to say, pitch modulations sent to a sequencer only affect the pitch that the sequencer sends to the output envelopes, and nothing else.

    What if you want to modulate something by sequencer after it has been modulated by something else? Then simply trigger an envelope from the sequencer, and use the envelope pitch as the modulation source, instead of the sequencer pitch.

Some bizarre strange permutations are possible: for example you can modulate a sequencer’s pitch with its own pitch, causing a rising or descending tone until it is inaudible.If you modulate a sequencer pitch by an oscillator, the sequencer and oscillator actually modulate each other, causing fractional tones.

Matrix 2 Destinations

Envelopes

Hold/Predelay/Repeat

Percentage is added to the base set period. For example, if modulation amount is 50% and predelay time was set to ½, then resulting predelay time is ¾. Negative modulations decrease the period. Values below the event rate period (2.5 msec by default) are clipped.

Attack/Decay/Release

Modulation multiplied by 100 and added to A/D/R time.  For example if attack modulation amount is 50% then attack time increases by 50. Negative values decrease the period. Values below 0 are clipped.

Time

Modulation is applied to attack, decay,and release, so the entire envelope shrinks or expands.

Sustain
Velocity

Directly adds to level as a percentage. For example if modulation is 50% then sustain level is increased by 0.5. Resulting values above 1 or below 0 are clipped.

Sequencers
Pitch

When modulation amount is 1%, a single semitone change from another sequencer or pitch source changes sequencer pitch by one semitone. If set to 12%, a single-semitone change from the pitch source transposes sequencer output by an octave. Pitch values outside the audible range are clipped.

Rate

Positive values increase rate.

Length

Positive values increase length.

Begin#

A modulation amount of 1% increases the begin step by 1.

LFOs
Frequency

Modulations change frequency as a percentage of the current set frequency. For example, if set frequency is 10Hz then a modulation of 100% sets frequency to 100Hz.

Amplitude

Same as for envelope sustain.

Type

For each 20% of modulation, the LFO advances to the next waveform Intermediate modulation values mix the two waveforms.

Width

Modulation amount adds to current set width. Values below 0% and above 100% are clipped.

Attack

Modulates attack time as for envelope hold times.

Decay

Modulates decay time as for envelope hold times.

Tempo

Tempo

Modulates the tempo, affecting sequencer, envelopes, LFOs, and glide time (but not echo time).